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Architecture beyond Europe - Journal

ABEJournal Voir les Non lu | Plus vieux en premier
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14-15 | 2019 – Building the Scottish Diaspora

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 28/07/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Dalness, Evandale, Tasmania, built c.1839. Photograph by Sir Ralph Wishaw, 1966

This thematic section of ABE Journal considers the contribution of Scotland and “Scottishness” to the built environment in the wider British empire from the late eighteenth through to the early twentieth century. It focuses in particular on how a better understanding of Scottish diasporic networks (familial, professional, entrepreneurial, religious, educational etc.), and their material presences through cultures of architecture and building, complicates how we interpret or indeed label such architecture as “British”. The underlying contention is that while the terms “Britain” and “British” have their uses, they are often employed in rather crude if not confounded ways with respect to the built environment, thus failing to acknowledge its many complexities and contradictions. These concerns are set here in the context of recent developments in cognate fields of scholarship, including Four Nations and New British history, which have made significant strides in disaggregating and problematizing the idea of Britishness in relation to empire over the past two decades. Scottish agency emerges in these papers as both an identifiable and influential factor in the construction of the colonial built environment.

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13 | 2018 – Fabriques de la tradition

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 15/10/2018 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Kazakh TV Complex, Almaty. Architects: A. Korzhempo, M. Ezau, V. Panin, 1983

Dans le sillage de la révolution industrielle à la fin du XVIIIe siècle et des bouleversements induits par la circulation accélérée des biens et des hommes qui en résultent, les villes d'Europe et des empires coloniaux connaissent un profond renouvellement urbain. Destructions et patrimonialisation vont de pair. Ces transformations urbaines s'accompagnent donc d'un important mouvement pour l'étude, la documentation et la protection d'un patrimoine menacé par cette modernisation à marche forcée. Un nouveau rapport à la tradition émerge, donnant naissance à de véritables identités culturelles.

Dans ce numéro thématique d’ABE Journal, les différentes contributions explorent la question de la « fabrique de la tradition » dans le monde post-colonial du point de vue de l'architecture et de son décor. Situés dans les limites dans l'ancien monde musulman, les cas étudiés ici, de l'Algérie coloniale à l'Asie centrale tardo-soviétique, semblent tous révéler la même tension à l'œuvre présidant à la naissance à des styles « néo-islamiques », devenus depuis de puissants marqueurs identitaires.

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12 | 2017 – The space of diplomacy

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 26/12/2017 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Kabul : view of the Italian ambassador's residence

This thematic section of ABE features contributions on the role and meanings of embassies and other structures designed for diplomacy, in urban fabrics situated east and south of the Mediterranean.

Albeit inherently representative objects, embassies are seldom considered as architectural signifiers, or as parts of the cultural landscape of a city. Starting from Addis Abeba and moving on to Ankara, Kabul and Beijing, the four papers of the section show that while the architecture of diplomacy displaces a fragment of the nation beyond its territorial borders, this movement is never limited to the transfer of technologies and architectural styles. The making of diplomatic landmarks can be assessed as a dialogic process of space production, entailing negotiation and domestication in the foreign context, appropriation and reworking of local symbolic and material resources, interaction with the surrounding social and physical landscape.

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11 | 2017 – Paradoxical Southeast Asia

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 11/01/2017 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Paradoxical Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, a space characterized by intense regional and global traffic networks since the sixteenth century, the architectural landscape is often seen as a palimpsest of styles. The hybrid and syncretic nature of Southeast Asian architectural forms is seen as the result of the successive waves of contacts that marked the history of this part of the world called by some the Asian Mediterranean (F. Gipoloux). In this genealogy of architectural types, the colonial moment has been often considered a rupture that introduced radically new forms in vernacular architecture. Following this logic, the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century are considered as moments of further intensification of this architectural acculturation. The adoption of the international style in the megacities of the "Asian tigers," nerve centers of the global economy, is symbolic of an urban development superficially tuned to the "global" rather than the local.
By equating the evolution of architectural forms in Southeast Asia to a transfer, mainly from West to East, this approach evades the complexity of the formation of the architectural landscape of Southeast Asia. This issue of ABEproposes to focus on the development of "syncretic" architectures of Southeast Asia by precisely tracing the circulation of techniques and architectural forms through a contextual approach. Local, regional, global have not followed each other sequentially - such a model presupposes the existence of a local, "original," culture. Instead, these three levels of traffic have coexisted in the past. Far from simple sedimentary layers laid down over time, the production of Southeast Asian architecture has been multiscalar, rhizomic and a longue durée 
phenomenon. For this reason, the concept of "returns" is a particularly useful one for analyzing both "colonial" and "traditional" motifs that appear in contemporary architecture.
When rethinking the local and the global in Southeast Asian architecture, we must move beyond the binary oppositions between the vernacular and the foreign, the colonial and the post-colonial, and the modern and the traditional, while still exploring how actors used such categories dynamically. Only in this way can we explain the coexistence of such seemingly contradictory categories.

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9-10 | 2016 – Dynamic Vernacular

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 12/07/2016 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Richard Hughes, Krapf-Rebmann Memorial Church, Kilifi, Kenya (c. 1956)

This issue takes as its subject the relationship between modernism and vernacular architecture in the colonial and postcolonial world.  It explores this relationship as a dynamic between modernism and the vernacular, rather than in the more familiar and uni-directional form of modernism’s appropriation of vernacular forms. That this coming together had as much consequence for the vernacular side of the equation as it did for the modernist side, is often recognised but rarely researched. It also explores situations where modernism’s affiliating strategy with vernacular architecture coexisted with policies supporting dispossession and social re-structuring, putting the very existence of the vernacular at risk.

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8 | 2015 – Revêtements céramiques

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 17/09/2015 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Edificio en la calle Alférez Sanz, n.º 2, Melilla, Francisco Hernanz (arquitecto), 1935.

Le champ des arts appliqués, dont l'étude est en plein essor, est un domaine très vaste qui peut être considéré dans son entier, les différents arts appliqués concourant à l'oeuvre d'art totale que deviennent parfois les intérieurs, mais aussi approchés selon les différents métiers. Ce numéro entend mettre en lumière l'étude du carreau céramique et du carreau ciment, comme revêtement de sol et de mur. Les travaux pionniers de Robert Saliba, Beyrouth architecturesAux sources de la modernité 1920-1940, et de Sophie Skaf, 20x20, Beyrouth, Paris, Tunis, Barcelone, peuvent être considérés comme des points de départ concernant la diffusion internationale du carreau ciment d'origine européenne, tandis que le carreau céramique, quant à lui, relève de la grande tradition du décor islamique, fort abondamment étudié par les spécialistes des arts de l'Islam.

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7 | 2015 – South America

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 01/07/2015 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Rome, 1930—Manifesto of the first formation Atlantic flight

This section of ABE is devoted to new models of exploring transnational architectural practice, and collects papers given at the Conference "Crossing Boundaries: Rethinking European architecture beyond Europe", held in Palermo (Italy), on 13-16 April 2014. Although European architects have worked beyond Europe since the time of the Crusades, the attention of historians of modern architecture has focused upon either colonial architecture or the work of exiles from fascism. Most of this literature focuses on the movement of forms and theories, rather than on how people structure their own identity in relationship to experiences of other places and cultures. The papers of this section shift the center of the discussion from dissemination to interchange and from colonial Africa and Asia to postcolonial Latin America and to parts of Asia that were never colonized. It considers clients as active agents, rather than passive consumers of varied forms of modernism, and it encompasses modest as well as iconic structures.

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6 | 2014 – Socialist Networks

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 30/12/2014 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Supermen, poster by Roman Cieslewicz, Paris, 1968.

This issue of ABE focuses on the internationalization of building culture after WWII and the contributions of architects, planners, and engineers from socialist countries to these processes. Complementing the studies of colonial and postcolonial links, international organizations such as the UN, and economic globalization as conduits of the world-wide spread of architecture, this issue discusses the intersection of these networks with flows of labor power, materials, technologies, discourses and images facilitated by institutions from socialist countries. Conditioned by Cold War but not always exemplifying a bipolar division of the world, the sites where architects from socialist countries worked were often characterized by multidirectional exchanges with otherprofessionals, administrators, educators, users, and inhabitants. In the course of these exchanges, the imported expertise was developed, mixed, modified and appropriated by various actors. By discussing these processes, this issue offers a more complicated and situated genealogy of architecture becoming world-wide.

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5 | 2014 – Ingénieries innovantes ?

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 01/12/2014 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Couverture de la revue Béton armé (avril 1933)

L’objectif de ce numéro est double. Il entend d’une part mettre en lumière la richesse des ressources offertes par les archives d’entreprises conservées en Europe pour l’étude des architectures européennes « hors les murs », dans la lignée d’une première exploration de fonds d’archives engagée à l’occasion du projet européen Building beyond the Mediterranean: Studying the archives of European businesses, 1860-1970 (Claudine Piaton, Ezio Godoli, David Peyceré, 2012). Il vise d’autre part à examiner les types de techniques et de savoir-faire exportés par les entreprises européennes afin de contribuer au débat autour de la question de l’innovation : les territoires extra européens ont-ils constitués des laboratoires dans lesquels étaient testées de nouvelles techniques de construction ou bien permettaient-ils simplement de diffuser à grande échelle celles déjà utilisées en Europe ?

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4 | 2013 – Global experts “off radar”

Architecture beyond Europe - Journal le 01/07/2013 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Henri Jean Calsat presenting his project for the new Brazzaville hospital to French officials, early 1950s.

Recent scholarship in architectural history testifies of an interest in a new type of professional which emerged in the postwar era, at a time when new international agencies emerged and a development discourse focusing on the Global South was on the rise. Travelling architects and planners turned into consultants consciously marketing their expertise in a worldwide arena and becoming what some have described as “global” or even “nomadic” experts. While well-known names such as Le Corbusier, Michel Ecochard or Constantinos Doxiadis immediately come to mind, this theme issue of ABE journal wishes to bring to the fore some more obscure figures which operated on a transnational scale. Following the trajectories of such figures like Michel Kalt, David Oakley, Max Lock, Henri-Jean Calsat or Erica Mann, we aim at broadening our understanding of the role this new kind of actor played in the shaping the “anxious modernisms” of the postwar global world, while at the same time acknowledging, among others via a discussion of Louis Kahn’s work in India, the often neglected role of local agents with whom these global experts de facto interacted.