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Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents

Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is a peer-reviewed online journal devoted to the exploration of urban issues through the lens of a wide range of social science approaches. The Journal embraces a multidisciplinary perspective on the transformation of social, environmental and economic issues of cities and city regions. Publishing both theoretical and empirical articles, the Journal is an international forum that brings together academics and practitioners working on urban issues in cities around the world to present ground breaking and relevant research. Voir les Non lu | Plus vieux en premier
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Meia-água: producing space and kinship in an irregular housing subdivision in Rio de Janeiro

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Thomas Cortado le 04/03/2020 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

As owners of a land plot, the poor families living in Rio de Janeiro’s loteamentos periféricos (“peripheral housing subdivisions”) have evolved their own unique ways of using their land, often with scant regard for building regulations. This is the case of the meia-água, a rectangular single-story backyard construction with a mono-pitched roof. At first sight, it seems people build meia-águas simply as a means to lower construction costs, but in doing so, they offer an insight into the socio-spatial hierarchies and kinship dynamics that shape the production of space. Thus, as the family move from the meia-água at the rear to the true house at the front of the plot, the former may be abandoned completely, turned into a workshop for small-scale economic activities, or provide a means to divide the land. People would also allow their married children and ageing parents to build or occupy meia-águas, so that they can take care of one another without compromising each other’s privacy. In...

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Quand la route devient objet d’architecture

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Olivier Gaudin le 08/01/2020 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

L’architecture de la voie. Histoires et théories est une somme, le produit remarquable de près de quinze ans de travail sur un sujet longtemps négligé par les théoriciens de l’architecture : la conception des infrastructures routières. Pourtant, l’attention que leur ont porté les praticiens est sans doute aussi ancienne que l’architecture elle-même, comme l’ouvrage s’emploie à le montrer. Le contexte récent était aussi favorable à une telle investigation. Depuis les années 1970, les discussions sur l’aménagement de l’espace se sont peu à peu décentrées depuis les villes vers les périphéries, les territoires ruraux, les reliefs. En écho au regain d’intérêt pour les formes du paysage et l’échelle territoriales, mais aussi à l’attention écologique pour les usages et occupations du sol, les routes sont revenues sur le devant de la scène des disciplines de la conception spatiale. Revenues : la précision est fondamentale pour aborder l’architecture de la voie, dont le véritable sujet est ...

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Urban Kinships

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Thomas Pfirsch le 20/12/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

The social sciences were long dominated by the notion that cities are places where kinship ties are weakened. Since the seminal works of Emile Durkheim (1892) and Frederic Le Play (1884), followed by the theories of Talcott Parsons (Parsons and Bales 1955), a connection has been made between urbanization, the emergence of the nuclear family and the modernization of society. Sociologists of the Chicago School thus described the contemporary city as a place of individual emancipation and elective ties, as opposed to the inherited solidarities of traditional kinship-based rural communities (Park 1925). From this perspective, transition from rural communities to modern urban societies relies on the family’s ability to form small independent nuclear units, distancing themselves spatially and relationally from the kin group, and increasingly relying on the solidarity of the State, individual rights and the labor market to manage their existence. Although they reversed the causality betwee...

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Partible Houses

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par João de Pina-Cabral le 20/12/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Vicinage is a word that emerged in Southern African ethnography in the 1960s to describe how, within a neighbourhood, some houses are more constitutionally linked with each other due to the residential and kinship history of the people who inhabit them (that is, due to the continued identities that the residents transport). In this paper, I treat houses as being in ontogeny, a constant process of self-constitution. Much as Marilyn Strathern argued for persons, houses are dividual in that their singularity comes about through an act of alliance, but they remain ever enmeshed within a set of co-presences that mean they are also partible, for their existence is ever dependent on the existence of other households in the vicinage. The essay focuses on three distinct types of vicinage, endeavouring to show what distinguishes them and what they have in common: among the Chopi of southern Mozambique, as studied by David Webster in the 1960s; in northwestern Iberia, both in the countryside a...

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The making of urban Maroons

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Clémence Léobal le 20/12/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

In this paper, I investigate how the houses in the villages are maintained and transmitted to urban dwellers, and how these configurations inform social ties in the city. Maroon inhabitants of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, located in the estuary of the Maroni River at the border between Suriname and French Guiana, maintain ties with Maroon upriver territories. Most people do not dwell in a single house. Their ‘configurations of houses’ can encompass both banks of the river and connect coastal cities with upriver rural places. The occupancy of and investments into upriver houses are not only the consequences but also the means to ensure the continuity of kinship in town. Beyond the diversity of the uses of those rural houses, I analyse the link between their maintaining and urban dwelling. Spatial disposal of the houses in the villages both reflects and result from matrilineal ties between kinsmen. In the urban context of Saint-Laurent, related houses are not always located nearby from on...

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House-ing Urban Kin

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Moises Kopper le 20/12/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

In Brazil’s post-neoliberal government, social policies became the bedrock for a new political economy predicated on poverty alleviation via market inclusion. This article draws from long-term ethnographical research conducted among beneficiaries of Minha Casa Minha Vida—Brazil’s largest housing policy. I am interested in the myriad ways policy designs and its contentious operation symbiotically reshape sociability and kin among first-time homeowners. I take a closer look at how ideas and configurations of the family travel across intimate and public domains—from communitarian politics to household economies—and are anxiously negotiated, becoming the indexer of experiential moral systems of care. Transitioning across multi-scalar instances of everyday sociality, I interrogate how such economies conflate with the infrastructures and pervasive imaginaries of the house in the local machineries of the policy.

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Urban mobility practices and family proximity

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Natalia Cosacov le 20/12/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Through analyzing residential and daily mobility practices from a qualitative approach, this paper shows that families sustain a residential pattern by which they value and pursue proximity to relatives. This residential rationale prioritizes living “nearby” rather than living “together”. The families examined throughout the study maintain family residential proximity at the intra-urban and even intra-neighborhood levels. The article accounts for and examines the residential trajectories that uphold proximity to family members and their interactions with urban dynamics. Finally, it shows the significant role of family in achieving homeownership, which does not always contribute to the geographic aggregation of relatives.

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Child- and youth-friendly cities: How does and can crowdmapping support their development?

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Sabine Hennig le 15/10/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

To develop child- and youth-friendly cities, data on infrastructure relevant for this subgroup of society is an important asset. The data can be obtained by crowdmapping approaches like OpenStreetMap (OSM). Even though OSM is used for many purposes, the question is whether it is a valuable source of data on child- and youth-relevant urban infrastructure. And, if so, how OSM can support the call for child- and youth-friendly cities. This was examined in the Austrian city of Salzburg. Based on a specially created list of urban features, OSM was analyzed for tags that would be useful to describe the relevant elements and for data available on these elements. The results show that tags exist to describe the majority (80%) of the about 40 element types identified. Although OSM holds abundant data on the elements, data gaps exist. Comparing the OSM data to Open Government Data (OGD) revealed that both OSM and OGD, together deliver a more complete picture of the relevant elements. To incre...

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Construire la ville inclusive au prisme du genre. Réflexions à partir de la Belgique francophone

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Karine Duplan le 15/07/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Si les femmes sont reconnues comme ayant généralement un accès inégalitaire aux espaces publics du fait de leur genre, ces derniers sont également dénoncés comme étant non seulement socialement construits comme plus insécures (Condon et al. 2005), mais aussi le plus souvent peu adaptés à des pratiques quotidiennes évoluant sous contrainte de genre (Massey 1994). L’implémentation récente dans de nombreux pays européens de lois réprimant les actes de harcèlement sexiste dans les espaces publics — comme c’est le cas en France, en Belgique ou en Suisse — ainsi que la mise en place de programmes d’aménagements urbains sensibles au genre — avec pour exemple Vienne et plus récemment Paris — témoignent par ailleurs de la façon dont ce sujet est constitué en tant que problème public. C’est dans ce contexte que l’ouvrage collectif Partager la ville. Genre et espace public en Belgique francophone propose de contribuer aux réflexions autour d’un partage plus juste des espaces publics avec l’aut...

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To open or not to open: The question of financial liberalization in China

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Paolo Balmas le 27/05/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

The question of China’s financial liberalization emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s, when the chairman Deng Xiaoping kicked off the great transition of China’s economy from a Communist, or Maoist, to a hybrid socialist-capitalist system. The opening of China’s market to foreign capital and the control on domestic capital crossing Chinese borders became two major issues in China’s economic policy. China’s slow but relentless financial liberalization is still ongoing. This book by Yu Wai Vic Li, assistant professor in the Department of Social Sciences at the Education University of Hong Kong, appears at a crucial time for the future of China’s financial liberalization, as China and Western powers led by the US engage in harsh negotiations about reorganizing their economic relations.

Li’s work admirably contributes to the most recent and updated strand of studies on the evolution of China’s policy-making processes and the role of the state in China’s economic development. The boo...