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Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents

Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is a peer-reviewed online journal devoted to the exploration of urban issues through the lens of a wide range of social science approaches. The Journal embraces a multidisciplinary perspective on the transformation of social, environmental and economic issues of cities and city regions. Publishing both theoretical and empirical articles, the Journal is an international forum that brings together academics and practitioners working on urban issues in cities around the world to present ground breaking and relevant research. Voir les Non lu | Plus vieux en premier
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Child- and youth-friendly cities: How does and can crowdmapping support their development?

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Sabine Hennig le 15/10/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

To develop child- and youth-friendly cities, data on infrastructure relevant for this subgroup of society is an important asset. The data can be obtained by crowdmapping approaches like OpenStreetMap (OSM). Even though OSM is used for many purposes, the question is whether it is a valuable source of data on child- and youth-relevant urban infrastructure. And, if so, how OSM can support the call for child- and youth-friendly cities. This was examined in the Austrian city of Salzburg. Based on a specially created list of urban features, OSM was analyzed for tags that would be useful to describe the relevant elements and for data available on these elements. The results show that tags exist to describe the majority (80%) of the about 40 element types identified. Although OSM holds abundant data on the elements, data gaps exist. Comparing the OSM data to Open Government Data (OGD) revealed that both OSM and OGD, together deliver a more complete picture of the relevant elements. To incre...

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Quand la route devient objet d’architecture

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Olivier Gaudin le 26/09/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

L’architecture de la voie. Histoires et théories est une somme, le produit remarquable de près de quinze ans de travail sur un sujet longtemps négligé par les théoriciens de l’architecture : la conception des infrastructures routières. Pourtant, l’attention que leur ont porté les praticiens est sans doute aussi ancienne que l’architecture elle-même, comme l’ouvrage s’emploie à le montrer. Le contexte récent était aussi favorable à une telle investigation. Depuis les années 1970, les discussions sur l’aménagement de l’espace se sont peu à peu décentrées depuis les villes vers les périphéries, les territoires ruraux, les reliefs. En écho au regain d’intérêt pour les formes du paysage et l’échelle territoriales, mais aussi à l’attention écologique pour les usages et occupations du sol, les routes sont revenues sur le devant de la scène des disciplines de la conception spatiale. Revenues : la précision est fondamentale pour aborder l’architecture de la voie, dont le véritable sujet est ...

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Construire la ville inclusive au prisme du genre. Réflexions à partir de la Belgique francophone

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Karine Duplan le 15/07/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Si les femmes sont reconnues comme ayant généralement un accès inégalitaire aux espaces publics du fait de leur genre, ces derniers sont également dénoncés comme étant non seulement socialement construits comme plus insécures (Condon et al. 2005), mais aussi le plus souvent peu adaptés à des pratiques quotidiennes évoluant sous contrainte de genre (Massey 1994). L’implémentation récente dans de nombreux pays européens de lois réprimant les actes de harcèlement sexiste dans les espaces publics — comme c’est le cas en France, en Belgique ou en Suisse — ainsi que la mise en place de programmes d’aménagements urbains sensibles au genre — avec pour exemple Vienne et plus récemment Paris — témoignent par ailleurs de la façon dont ce sujet est constitué en tant que problème public. C’est dans ce contexte que l’ouvrage collectif Partager la ville. Genre et espace public en Belgique francophone propose de contribuer aux réflexions autour d’un partage plus juste des espaces publics avec l’aut...

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To open or not to open: The question of financial liberalization in China

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Paolo Balmas le 27/05/2019 à 02:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

The question of China’s financial liberalization emerged in the late 1970s and early 1980s, when the chairman Deng Xiaoping kicked off the great transition of China’s economy from a Communist, or Maoist, to a hybrid socialist-capitalist system. The opening of China’s market to foreign capital and the control on domestic capital crossing Chinese borders became two major issues in China’s economic policy. China’s slow but relentless financial liberalization is still ongoing. This book by Yu Wai Vic Li, assistant professor in the Department of Social Sciences at the Education University of Hong Kong, appears at a crucial time for the future of China’s financial liberalization, as China and Western powers led by the US engage in harsh negotiations about reorganizing their economic relations.

Li’s work admirably contributes to the most recent and updated strand of studies on the evolution of China’s policy-making processes and the role of the state in China’s economic development. The boo...

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Infelicitous Efficacy: Alfred Hrdlicka’s Memorial against War and Fascism

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Tanja Schult le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Austrian sculptor Alfred Hrdlicka’s Monument against War and Fascism (1988/91) in central Vienna is the focal point of this article, which asks what contested images in public places do. Hrdlicka’s memorial is treated as a symptom of the changing Austrian memory culture of the late 1980s. We locate the memorial in the context of its realisation and reflect on the performative force, which results from its central sculpture and point of contention: the bronze figure of the so-called Street-washing Jew. This visual element caused prominent after-effects such as public discussions and artistic interventions. Two such interventions by artists Steven Cohen (2007) and Ruth Beckermann (2015) will be briefly invoked in relation to what we argue is this memorial’s blind spot. In their own distinct performative ways, all three works make visible how Austrian participations in the Nazi crimes are being negotiated in the public space over a period of 30 years. However, since only Hrdlicka’s mon...

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Urban Encounters: Art and the Public

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Léa Sallenave le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

The result of a 2013 conference held in Halifax, this collective book brings together scholars, artists and many more to see how “the interactions between art and the public actually play out in the urban social context” (p.3). Crossing boundaries between artistic creations and social science research, focused mainly on Canadian cities, this provocative project will appeal to anyone, both inside and outside of academia, seeking new ways to study the relationships between artists, publics and their spatiotemporal dimensions.

In their introduction, anthropologists and co-editors Martha Radice and Alexandrine Boudreault-Fournier underscore the dialogical aspect of public art: most of the performances and artworks at the centre of this book are both transformed by their public dimension but in turn transform their publics. With the exception of the first chapter, this is due to the ephemeral temporality of most of the objects studied: being time-based or time limited, these public artwo...

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Pictures that denounce? In the Jungle of Calais, Banksy and the Hearts of Cardboard

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Damien Darcis le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

In this paper, I would like to question the political power of images in the urban space. To do this, I rely on the confrontation of two types of images displayed in Calais, a city now associated with the "migrant problem". On the one hand, I will study four interventions by street artist Banksy. On the other side, I will analyse images made by anonymous artists, in remote, less visible sites, on the walls, on the doors or on the windows of squats including migrants. While Banksy's images convey a political message denouncing the situation of migrants, politicians in Calais have said they want to protect these paintings. Conversely, anonymous images, which do not convey any political message, are systematically erased or rendered inaccessible. Based on the work of Michel Foucault, Jacques Rancière and Étienne Balibar, I would like to show that this paradox is perhaps explained less by the celebrity of Banksy than by the relation of images to space: Banksy’s murals maintain, even per...

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Images in South Lebanon: an Absent Presence. The Case of the Former Khiam Prison

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Zara Fournier le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

This article investigates the status and effect of images in the post-conflict public space of South Lebanon which is the stage of political and social configurations involving specific means of image production on the territory. How, why and for whom are images produced in a post-conflict area that has been perceived as “invisible” for thirty years? Are the images produced a way to go beyond this conflict or do they perpetuate it? All of these artefacts are resources for the appropriation of the southern Lebanese space; but discrepancies are created on the ground by their limited effects and reception. The aim of this paper is to point out the dissonances between the presumed power of these images and their effectiveness on the ground by focusing on the staging of the former prison of Khiam since 2000 and its reflection of all these dynamics. We will show that images in Khiam and in the South are in a liminal state: they are produced for Others who are not directly addressed, they ...

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The Political Mission of Contemporary Urban Statuary. Image, History and Territorial Identity in Montpellier (France)

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Laurent Viala le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

This paper deals with the political dimension of the urban public space. It examines the political meaning of a contemporary statuary. The research carried out in Montpellier (France) deals with three public spaces which gather most of the contemporary statues. We explore the emblematic images (or images of images) of universal, real or mythical characters as several arguments in order to overhaul a new political order in and by the urban public space. This order is read in the perspective of an historical assertion of the territorial identity of the city of Montpellier. We use some aspects of the semiotic triad (icon, index, symbol) of Charles Peirce's theory of signs. First, we consider the new mesh size of the urban public space, which is understood as the expression of a territorial personal foresight, thought by Georges Frêche, former mayor of Montpellier. Then, the obsolete civic imagery is reformulated by valuing a social imagery which takes part in an historical urban rhetor...

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What do Images in the Public Space do?

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Allison Huetz le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Visuality and Visual Studies

The question “What do images in the public space do?” refers to W. J. T. Mitchell’s book What do pictures want? published in 2005 and recently translated into French. This question reflects several issues related to the development of visual studies as an interdisciplinary field of study. The analysis of images, which was traditionally attached to art history, is now investigated by visual studies, which have shifted the line of questioning to reflect upon the notion of “visuality” that Norman Bryson defines as “the social construct of vision”, thus moving away from the myth “of pure form, pure perception, and culturally universal vision” (Bryson 1988: 108). Based on the assumption that “visual culture […] extends to everyday practices of seeing and showing, especially those that we take to be immediate or unmediated” (Mitchell, 2002: 170), this journal issue goes beyond the analysis of images in the public space to examine how they contribute to the cons...