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Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents

Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is a peer-reviewed online journal devoted to the exploration of urban issues through the lens of a wide range of social science approaches. The Journal embraces a multidisciplinary perspective on the transformation of social, environmental and economic issues of cities and city regions. Publishing both theoretical and empirical articles, the Journal is an international forum that brings together academics and practitioners working on urban issues in cities around the world to present ground breaking and relevant research. Voir les Non lu | Plus vieux en premier

The Trap Within Anticipated Regrowth : Two Sides of Strategic Response to Urban Decline in Leipzig

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Nebojša Čamprag le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Although a considerable body of literature on shrinking cities has been produced in the recent years, a majority is focused on the experiences of declining industrial regions from the Global North. Nonetheless, these cases still hold a significant basis for understanding a range of manifestations of urban decline and could also serve as important frameworks for evaluating effectiveness of urban governance models. Thus, the research presented in this paper focuses on the well-known case of Leipzig, which has been represented as a prime example of urban decline in Europe for decades. Through analysis of secondary literature sources, various urban redevelopment frameworks, and media coverage, this study contributes two major insights on strategic response to decline in Leipzig. First, many opportunities that national and international subsidy programmes offered, alongside with entrepreneurial urban governance managed to provide a locally adapted strategic framework that precipitated th...


Pictures that denounce? In the Jungle of Calais, Banksy and the hearts of cardboard

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Damien Darcis le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

In this paper, I would like to question the political power of images in the urban space. To do this, I rely on the confrontation of two types of images displayed in Calais, a city now associated with the "migrant problem". On the one hand, I will study four interventions by street artist Banksy. On the other side, I will analyse images made by anonymous artists, in remote, less visible sites, on the walls, on the doors or on the windows of squats including migrants. While Banksy's images convey a political message denouncing the situation of migrants, politicians in Calais have said they want to protect these paintings. Conversely, anonymous images, which do not convey any political message, are systematically erased or rendered inaccessible. Based on the work of Michel Foucault, Jacques Rancière and Étienne Balibar, I would like to show that this paradox is perhaps explained less by the celebrity of Banksy than by the relation of images to space: Banksy’s murals maintain, even per...


Change in Use and Development of Public Squares Considering Daily Temporalities.

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Dounia Cherfaoui le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Cities are constantly changing. Spatial-temporal studies are essential to understanding these changes. Notions of urban temporalities introduced in these studies reveal changes in the mobility and movement of diverse groups of users in public spaces and particularly in public squares. What are the concrete changes of uses and conflicts in public squares? What are the development approaches that consider the changes of uses and conflicts? This article explores these questions using the case of the Emir Abd El Kader Square that is a central square in Algiers. A survey was conducted in the last two weeks of May 2016, considering working and weekend days. It required the observation of users and uses in the square at different times, and questionnaires distributed among users and urban planners. This study identifies use patterns in this public square as they occur during different times of the day and week and discusses the proposed re-development and improvement of the square. The res...


Kodak’s Colorama and the Construction of the Gaze in Public Space

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Vivien Philizot le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Between the 1950s and 1989, Kodak continuously occupied a surface of approximately one hundred square metres in New York’s Grand Central Station with a display of panoramic photographs that were changed regularly. These giant “Coloramas” presented photographed scenes that were taken specifically for the project, with the hundreds of images displayed during this period all showing an idealised representation of the American family. These photographs would, however, have remained ordinary had their defining feature not been the placement of the photographer within the frame of the image. By connecting photography to the point of view by which it is constructed, these panoramas seem to prescribe to their public a certain relation to the images, and to initiate a reflexive process which seems to have now become general. The huge area covered by the Coloramas has today given way to the more discreet surface of our smartphones, laptops and other digital tablets, which govern our various v...


The Public Life of Images: Towards a Social Ecology of the Urban Gaze. The example of Bologna’s Sacrario dei Partigiani

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Olivier Gaudin le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

To investigate the active presence of images in urban public places, this article argues for the possibility of a social ecological perspective, revisiting the tradition of human ecology introduced by Chicago sociologists and social psychologists a century ago. Confronting this intellectual heritage to contributions of visual, cultural and memory studies, I propose to consider the ecological framing of urban experience as a method for investigating the public life of images. This approach consists in studying the perceptual environments, material devices and social activities that maintain a living relationship with public images in cities. To illustrate the proposal, the article examines a concrete example, the photographic portraits of the Sacrario dei Partigiani in Bologna (Italy), through personal observation and photographs. A third section of the text expands the scope of inquiry, in order to experiment with the social ecological approach: it addresses the contemporary floodin...


Infelicitous Efficacy: Alfred Hrdlicka’s Memorial against War and Fascism

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Tanja Schult le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Austrian sculptor Alfred Hrdlicka’s Monument against War and Fascism (1988/91) in central Vienna is the focal point of this article, which asks what contested images in public places do. Hrdlicka’s memorial is treated as a symptom of the changing Austrian memory culture of the late 1980s. We locate the memorial in the context of its realisation and reflect on the performative force, which results from its central sculpture and point of contention: the bronze figure of the so-called Street-washing Jew. This visual element caused prominent after-effects such as public discussions and artistic interventions. Two such interventions by artists Steven Cohen (2007) and Ruth Beckermann (2015) will be briefly invoked in relation to what we argue is this memorial’s blind spot. In their own distinct performative ways, all three works make visible how Austrian participations in the Nazi crimes are being negotiated in the public space over a period of 30 years. However, since only Hrdlicka’s mon...


The political mission of contemporary urban statuary. Image, history and territorial identity in Montpellier (France)

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Laurent Viala le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

This paper deals with the political dimension of the urban public space. It examines the political meaning of a contemporary statuary. The research carried out in Montpellier (France) deals with three public spaces which gather most of the contemporary statues. We explore the emblematic images (or images of images) of universal, real or mythical characters as several arguments in order to overhaul a new political order in and by the urban public space. This order is read in the perspective of an historical assertion of the territorial identity of the city of Montpellier. We use some aspects of the semiotic triad (icon, index, symbol) of Charles Peirce's theory of signs. First, we consider the new mesh size of the urban public space, which is understood as the expression of a territorial personal foresight, thought by Georges Frêche, former mayor of Montpellier. Then, the obsolete civic imagery is reformulated by valuing a social imagery which takes part in an historical urban rhetor...


Images in South Lebanon: an Absent Presence. The case of the former Khiam Prison

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Zara Fournier le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

This article investigates the status and effect of images in the post-conflict public space of South Lebanon which is the stage of political and social configurations involving specific means of image production on the territory. How, why and for whom are images produced in a post-conflict area that has been perceived as “invisible” for thirty years? Are the images produced a way to go beyond this conflict or do they perpetuate it? All of these artefacts are resources for the appropriation of the southern Lebanese space; but discrepancies are created on the ground by their limited effects and reception. The aim of this paper is to point out the dissonances between the presumed power of these images and their effectiveness on the ground by focusing on the staging of the former prison of Khiam since 2000 and its reflection of all these dynamics. We will show that images in Khiam and in the South are in a liminal state: they are produced for Others who are not directly addressed, they ...


What Do Images in the Public Space do?

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Allison Huetz le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

Visuality and Visual Studies

The question “What do images in the public space do?” refers to W. J. T. Mitchell’s book What do pictures want? published in 2005 and recently translated into French. This question reflects several issues related to the development of visual studies as an interdisciplinary field of study. The analysis of images, which was traditionally attached to art history, is now investigated by visual studies, which have shifted the line of questioning to reflect upon the notion of “visuality” that Norman Bryson defines as “the social construct of vision”, thus moving away from the myth “of pure form, pure perception, and culturally universal vision” (Bryson 1988: 108). Based on the assumption that “visual culture […] extends to everyday practices of seeing and showing, especially those that we take to be immediate or unmediated” (Mitchell, 2002: 170), this journal issue goes beyond the analysis of images in the public space to examine how they contribute to the cons...


Urban Encounters: Art and the Public

Articulo - Journal of Urban Research - Documents par Léa Sallenave le 07/03/2019 à 01:00:00 - Favoriser ||  (Lu/Non lu)

The result of a 2013 conference held in Halifax, this collective book brings together scholars, artists and many more to see how “the interactions between art and the public actually play out in the urban social context” (p.3). Crossing boundaries between artistic creations and social science research, focused mainly on Canadian cities, this provocative project will appeal to anyone, both inside and outside of academia, seeking new ways to study the relationships between artists, publics and their spatiotemporal dimensions.

In their introduction, anthropologists and co-editors Martha Radice and Alexandrine Boudreault-Fournier underscore the dialogical aspect of public art: most of the performances and artworks at the centre of this book are both transformed by their public dimension but in turn transform their publics. With the exception of the first chapter, this is due to the ephemeral temporality of most of the objects studied: being time-based or time limited, these public artwo...